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Authoritative and Democratic Parenting Programs
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The Big Answer

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Insomnia and Styles of Parental Authority in College Students

an article by G. S. Brassington

(our site's article review)

Insomnia and Styles of Parental Authority in College Students

In this study, it was determined that insomnia in college students increased in students who were raised by authoritarian methods, but decreased in students who were raised by authoritative methods. Analysis suggested that more strict and uncompromising discipline engaged in by authoritarian parents was associated with higher insomnia in young adults, while the firm though flexible and warm discipline associated with the authoritative parents was associated with less insomnia. Further, as fathers' permissiveness increased, insomnia decreased, while mothers' permissiveness seemed to be unrelated to insomnia. (It is unfortunate that "permissiveness" was used in this way, encouraging study readers to see parenting as black and white—either authoritarian or permissive, leaving the only correct method—authoritative—totally out of the picture.)

For other study results involving the comparison of authoritative parenting and other types of parenting styles, see these authors on our website: Gauvain, Baumrind, Maccoby, Lewis, Aunola, Brassington, Hill, Larzelere, Shucksmith, Chao, Ramsey, Strage, Peterson, Fletcher, Gray, Steinberg, Lamborn, Society for the Advancement of Education, Johnson Publishing Company Inc., Berg, Snowden, McIntyre, and Slicker. Then see these books: (and the references in the back) Gordon’s Discipline That Works and Alvy’s Parent Training Today. Then see our comments on books and/or articles by these authors: Lakoff, Gould, Pugh, Critzer, Popkin, Dinkmeyer, Gordon, Faber, Dreikurs, Solter, Prinz, Kvols, Kohn, and Nelsen, keeping in mind that this is just the first author listed—many works have more authors and these are listed as well in each of our references.

Then, check out the real courses (begin with Internet searches) that teach various forms of authoritative and democratic parenting, like P.E.T., STEP (Systematic Training for Effective Parenting), Active Parenting, Winning Family Lifeskills, Positive Discipline, Redirecting Children’s Behavior, and Positive Parenting, the Ginott method (see our comments on the Faber and Mazlish book Liberated Parents Liberated Children), and Dreikur’s democratic parenting (see our comments on his Happy Children book).

Finally, it should be noted that parents can influence children's intellectual development—and other types of development as well. See:

  1. Parenting the Young Gifted Child: Supportive Behaviors
  2. Impact of Parenting Practices on Adolescent Achievement
  3. Over Time Changes in Adjustment and Competence Among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families
  4. Parenting Styles and Adolescent Development
  5. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Achievement Strategies
  6. Patterns of Competence and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, and Neglectful Families
  7. Discipline That Works
  8. Social Development: Psychological Growth And The Parent-Child Relationship
  9. Toward a Psychology of Being
  10. The Relation of Parenting Style to Adolescent School Performance
  11. Unpacking Authoritative Parenting: Reassessing a Multidimensional Construct
  12. Quality Day Care, Early, Is Tied to Achievements as an Adult
  13. Authoritative Parenting and College Students' Academic Adjustment
  14. Family Context Variables and the Development of Self-Regulation in College Students
  15. Generativity and Authoritarianism: Implications for Personality, Political Involvement, and Parenting
  16. How to Raise a Brighter Child
  17. How To Raise A Responsible Child
  18. Impact of Parenting Practices on Adolescent Achievement
  19. Indochinese Refugee Families and Academic Achievement
  20. Nurturing Teenagers To A Better Future: massive study confirms importance of parental care
  21. Parenting Styles Have Influence on the Kind of Adults Children Become, Study Shows
  22. Parents' Guide to Raising a Gifted Child
  23. Relationship of Parenting Style to Behavioral Adjustment in Graduating High School Seniors
  24. Socialization and Instrumental Competence in Young Children